Sustainable design development is a general belief that human activities should promote the durability of the planet and populations. Human needs must not lead to the destruction of Earth or deplete its resources. Water is one such valuable natural resource. This article focus on how sustainable design can significantly reduce water wastage in homes and promote re-use the Water reuse sustainable project aims to achieve zero water wastage. 

Sustainable design commonly is an operative aspect generating an eco-effective and eco-efficient earth. The purpose is to solve large-scale global problems such as climate transformation, deficiencies, and wars through micro and macro processes of singular, locally with international efforts to problem-solving. The idea of sustainability is the connection between human and nature; the vision is viewing the world as anthropomorphic, hence, controlled decently via human needs and subservient to the human controller and involved extraction, the world life morally eco-centric, where upkeep as an inherent drive of the main apprehension, with advance as a secondary spillover.

Sustainable Design Solution: Developing and Implementing

As we’ve known, practicing the transformations of the current life situation to be designed sustainably will oblige us to follow some sequences that help to save the environment and resources. Based on that, we have discovered many cases of studies and designs currently focal on providing all the possibilities to guide us to sustain our life.

Environmental protection: is a global concern for nations sustainability, so the Kingdom of Bahrain has prepared great efforts to make sure having environmental sustainability in many areas. Constitution of Bahrain and the National Action Charter; have given close attention to environmental protection by maintaining a balance in the urban development requirements and environmental sustainability. As known, it is the leading pillar of Bahrain’s Economic Vision 2030 and it’s the National Strategic Master Plan. (eGov,2020)

The Kingdom of Bahrain has also established The Supreme Council for Environment (SCE) to involved the development of programs, policies, and strategies to achieve environmental sustainability in various domains. Additionally, it has ratified some laws and regulations related to sustainable development and has engaged in many multilateral conventions and compliance to confirm; it is a commitment towards the global directions. (eGov,2020)

The Supreme Council for Environment (SCE); is a government entity established 2012. Council is in charge of the development planning of Bahrain’s future strategy for the environment, sustainable development, and following up on the National Strategy’s for Environment implementation thru relevant ministries, agencies, and institutions. The SCE’s instruction ether embraces protecting Bahrain’s natural habitat, human environment, make sure the sustainability of components, maintaining, and evolving resources for future generations. (eGov,2020)

The kingdom of Bahrain has made a great stride in the area of economic, social, and environmental development in the last years. It has strived for sustainable and harmonious growth to achieve the sustainable development goals in different areas; the second focal of sustainable development goal in Bahrain after the energy is water; as known it’s the most valuable natural resource that is needed by every living thing on earth. “The SDG goal six, focuses on clean and reachable water to all which a vital treasure of the earth. 

Great effort has been made to progress the implementation of the objectives and indicators for the sixth goal of ‘sustainable development goals 2030’, in the Kingdom of Bahrain. But still more needs to be done. We should keep in mind that just cleaning water and sanitation is not enough, we should focus on reducing water wastage as the main stage before going through goal six of SDG.

Water wastage is quite common; most people believe that there is enough water on the earth and hence wasting is no wrongdoing. Those people do not realize that though 97 percentages of the earth are covered with water, unfortunately, most of that is not drinkable, only 3 percent of the water on earth is fresh-water and can be used for drinking purposes. And out of this 3 percent, 70 percent is in form of glaciers and icecaps and hence cannot be reached. The remaining water which is underground is ordinary, about 0.3 percentages of total freshwater, that’s the water we get in our homes and use it for a various purpose such as for drinking, washing, cleaning, watering garden, car washing, shower, bath, toilet flushing and other. (Fiaz Ahmed,2016).

A lot of water is wasted in flushing the toilet which is based on the age and type of toilet; for example, a toilet made in 1982 could use from 5 to 7 gallons of water per flushing, and toilet made between 1982 to 1993 uses around 3.5 gallons of water per flushing, and the newer toilets used less water around 1.6 gallons and even 1.28 gallons per flushing. (Christopher John,2018)

 Flushing the toilet counts as the single maximum usage of water in homes, and hence offers a major opportunity for water conservation. Based on the findings of many studies, the average of flushing per day is approximately 5 times equal to 8 gallons of water, counting for 24 percent of per day water use, which makes up roughly 30 percent of water wastage at home counting as the biggest source of water wastage. There are many techniques to save water use in toilets, as will changing habit and adjustments of mechanical to be replaced. (Alliance for Water Efficiency,2019) 

Shower in an average home typically is the fourth largest water use after toilets, baths, and clothes washers. Approximately on an average shower use per person is typically 17.2 gallons of water equal to 65.1 liters and lasts for 8.2 minutes, at an average flow rate of 2.1 gallons equal to 7.94 liters per minute. (Alliance for Water Efficiency,2019)

Calculate the number of water wastage based on Bahrain unite price (m3) of water:

Unite  Unite price (BD) m3 to gallons  gallons to liters
m3 0.750  264 999.349

If we divided the total number of gallons for per minutes:

m3 to gallons gallons per minute Price per minute
264 264 / 60 min = 4.4 gallon / minutes 0.0125 BD

Third, using a bathroom basin for hand wash etc. the average of each wash per person is typically 8 gallons equal to 30.28 liters for standard water flow in 15 seconds, and 1 gallon equal to 4.546 liters for low-flow water in 15 seconds.

As we’ve known our latest situation regarding “COVID-19 we are washing our hand approximately for 5 to 10 times more than in normal situations a day that’s mean we are consuming 20 to 40 gallons if it’s with the low-flow water hand wash in 60 seconds = 1 minute, and according to COVID-19 the approximately of handwashing from 15 to 20 times a day will consume 60 to 80 gallons with the low-flow water hand wash in 40 to 60 seconds = 1 minute.

Based on that statistic studies and current situations, Water Re-Use Sustainable Project Design is the way to meets humanity’s needs by saving water for future generations. The objective aim of this project to save the environment and the economic issues and to reduce the number of clean water and sanitation which is done by the government.

Water Re-use project system is typically divided into two main stations:

Station A: Recycling the gray water by collecting and direct the water from washbasin and showers drain into the toilet tank to use it for flushing the toilet. 

Station B: The remaining gray water will direct to a treatment filter device for the water purification process, and then will be directed to the garden irrigation water collection tank.

Process of gray water recycling 


This sustainably designed project will help in saving money and reduce the amount of water wastage based on each per water flushing, washing, and cleaning activities. In this process, will make sure that 100% of water is re-used in the internal environment with zero wastage.

About the Author

Arch. Amal Buenq is a programmer since 2009 and currently works as an administrator of computers and networking. In 2018 She become an interior architecture and her brightest project that added value to the community is (animated social welfare project) and other projects in different domains.